who invented c++?
history of C++
history of the C++ programming language is developed by Bjarne Stroustrup. He developed this programming in the lab at AT&T Bell Labs, which he was head of till 2002. The inception of the C++ programming language began in 1979 when Bjarne Stroustrup was doing his Ph.D. Fascinated by object-oriented approach Stroustrup thought of implementing this paradigm in Software development, But Simula language was too slow for practical uses. So he was working with C with classes.
In 1983 it was named C++ and included some add-on features such as classes, inheritance,in-lining, default function arguments, polymorphism, encapsulation, and strong type checking. To provide Simula’s facilities for program organization together with C efficiency and flexibility for system programming C++ was designed.
By the late 1970s, C had evolved into what now is referred to as “traditional C,” “classic C,” or “Kernighan and Ritchie C “.The publication by prentice-hall in 1978 of Kernighan and Ritchie’s book, The C programming language, brought wide attention to the language.
The widespread use of C with various types of computers, unfortunately, led to many variations. These were similar, but often incompatible. This was a serious problem for program developers who needed to write portable programs that would run on several platforms. It became clear that a standard version of C was needed. In 1983, the X3J11technical committee was created under the American National Standards Committee on Computers and Information Processing (X3) to “provide a not open to more than one interpretation and machine-dependent definition of the language”
Machine Languages, Assembly Languages, and High-Level Languages :
Programmers write instructions in various programming languages, some directly understandable by the computer and others that require intermediate translation steps. Hundreds of computer languages are in use today. These may be divided into three general types:
- Any computer can directly understand only its own machine language
- Machine language is the “natural language” of a particular computer
- It is defined by the hardware design of that computer. Machine languages generally consist of strings of numbers(ultimately reduced to 1s and 0s) that instruct the computer to perform their most elementary operations one at a time
- Machine languages are machine-dependent, i.e a particular machine language can be used on only one type of computer
- As computers became more popular, it became apparent that machine-language programming was too slow, too long and error-prone
- Instead of using the strings of numbers that computers could directly understand, programmers began using English-like abbreviations to represent the elementary operations of the computer(this English like abbreviation formed the basis of assembly languages)
- Translator programs called assemblers were developed to convert assembly-language programs to machine language at computer speeds
- Computer usage increased rapidly with the advent of assembly languages, but these still required many instructions to accomplish even the simplest tasks
- To speed the programming process, high-level languages were developed in which single statements accomplish sustainable tasks
- Translator program called compiler convert high-level language programs into machine language
- High-level languages allow programmers to write instructions that look almost like everyday English and contain commonly used mathematical notations
- High-level language is much more desirable from the programmer’s standpoint than either machine languages or assembly languages
- C and C++ are among the most powerful and most widely used programming language
- Interpreter programs(it is a computer program that directly executes instructions written in a programming and scripting language) were developed that can directly execute high-level language programs without the need for compiling those programs into machine language
- Although compiled programs execute faster than interpreted programs, interpreter is popular in program-development environments, in which programs are changed frequently as new features are added and errors are connected
- Once a program is developed, a compiled version can be produced to run most efficiently
Some Other high-level Languages
hundreds of high-level languages have been developed, but only a few have achieved board acceptance.FORTRAN(Formula Translator) was developed by IBM Corporation between 1954 and 1957 to be used for scientific and engineering applications that require complex mathematical computations.FORTRAN is still widely used, especially in engineering applications
COBOL(Common Business Oriented Language) was developed in 1959 by computer manufacturers, the government and industrial computer users.COBOL is used for commercial applications that require precise and efficient manipulation of large amounts of data. By some estimates, more than half of all business software is still programmed in COBOL.
Pascal was designed at about the same time as C by Professor Niklaus Wirth and was intended for academic use.